McPherson, M., Harvey, D., Karney, B. (2017) System design and operation for integrating variable renewable energy resources through a comprehensive characterization framework. Renewable Energy 113: 1019-1032.


Strategic Integration of Large-capacity Variable Energy Resources can encompass a broad range of physical and temporal scales but usually used on an hourly, provincial scale.

Advanced reference: M. McPherson and B. Karney, “A scenario based approach to designing electricity grids with high variable renewable energy penetrations in Ontario, Canada: Development and application of the SILVER model,” Energy, vol. 138, pp. 185-196, 2017.


design and operation of electricity systems for deep decarbonization, including variable renewable energy integration, storage integration, demand response program design, transmission expansions, exploration of technology, policy and market assumptions to support decision-making related to system operations and capacity expansion

Key Inputs

generation and transmission fleet operational characteristics (could be existing, based on a ‘what-if’ scenario),operational costs, maintenance costs, operational constraints (generation, transmission), load profile, GHG emissions, network design, long-term scenario plans

Key Outputs

hourly operation of the electricity system, including associated costs, GHG emissions, generator output, transmission usage, asset capacity factors, variable renewable generation, operational costs

Registered developers

Madeleine McPhersonUniversity of Victoria
Richard HendriksUniversity of Toronto

Registered model users

UserOrganization typeOutputs used
Richard Hendriks,

system operational costs,GHG emissions